Population Explosion In India
The fastest rise in the population of India was during the period of 1951 to 1981, in which the population was from 36 crores in 1951 was reached around to 70 crores in 1981. During this period of 30 years, population increased around 34 crores, which is the fastest rise in the history of population statistics. Death rate has become controlled due to modern health and medical facilities and it has reduced to become 15 persons per thousand whereas; birth rate has not got any significant reduction. That is why; this period from 1951 to 1981 is known in India as the period of Population Explosion.
Causes of Population Explosion In India
One of the reasons of fast rising population in India is its hot climate. Due to hot climate, maturity comes at early age in boys and girls, due to which they give birth to their children at their early age. This is one of the main reasons for population explosion.
Child Marriage and Multi Marriage System
In India the tradition of child marriage and multi-marriage system is prevalent. Marriage of around 80% girls of the country is took place at their young age of between 15 to 20 years. Thus, the result of long married life comes in the farm of excessive childbirth. Tradition of multi-marriage system increases the rotation of childbirth. Apart from it, the increasing tendency of widow marriage, due to the social reforms is also increasing childbirth up to some extent.
Our religious Gurus say that if a Hindu person does not has son, then who will perform the religious ritual in its absence. Due to this, person remains engage in the continuous process of giving birth, one by one, in search of male baby. In the same manner, in Muslims both male and female child is a boon (gift) sent by Allah, prevention of their birth by using any means of family planning is a sin. Due to these reasons, population is continuously increasing.
Illiteracy and Unawareness
In India around 36% males and 61% females are illiterate. Neither they have full knowledge of family planning nor they know about the consequences of excessive childbirth. This is one of the reasons of rising population and the situation of Population Explosion’ is emerged.
Due to poverty, population is increased of the poor families of our country. People lives in slum, uses their children as a tool, to earn money, hence they always try to increase the number of children in their families.
In India the average age for marriage is very low, comparatively other nations of the world. This is also a reason for population explosion.
In India the death rate from the year 1900 to 1910 was around 35 to 50 persons per thousand, which is now reduced to only 7 to 8 persons per thousand. This become ‘possible in the country by good and hygienic food, pure drinking water, facilities of hospitals, good cleanness, medical facilities at affordable rates and control over Malnutrition, Pneumonia, Cholera, Epidemic etc. Along with, child death rate has reduced to 69 per thousand, comparatively around 218 per thousand in between the years 1916 to 1920. Due to this also, the position of Population Explosion occurred.
Indifferent towards Family Planning
Illiterate persons and people living in rural areas are indifferent towards family planning. They feel fear even by the name of ‘Operation’. They are not interested even in the use of simplest and cheapest means of family planning.
Lack of Social Security
Due to lack of social security system in India, every parent seeks. shelter at the time of crises and for their old age, in childbirth. Whether this would be son or daughter. In the fear of death of their child at childhood, they give birth too many children, so that any of them would be support of their old age.
Arrival of Refugees
Population is very much increased due to continuous arrivals of refugees in India. At the time of division of India and. Pakistan in 1947, more than 1 crore refugees came to India. In 1962 at the time of attack of China, a huge number of Tibetan refugees came to India. Similarly, in 1971, more than 1 crore Bangladeshi refugees, came to India and even today this problem is still continued. Apart from this, continuous arrival of Nepalis, is also still continued. More than 5 lakhs Tamil refugees had come to India due to Sri Lankan Tamil problem. All these are responsible for population explosion.
Apart from the above, following are other causes of population explosion
1- Social compulsion of Marriage
2- Lack of means of entertainment
3- Bhagyawati (fateful) view
4- Ambition of big family
5- Betterment in economic position
6- Joint family system, etc.