Population Explosion In India
The fastest rise in the population of India was from 1951 to 1981, the population was 36 crores in 1951 and reached around 70 crores in 1981. During this period of 30 years, the population increased by around 34 crores, which is the fastest rise in the history of population statistics. The death rate has become controlled due to modern health and medical facilities and it has reduced to become 15 persons per thousand whereas; the birth rate has not got any significant reduction. That is why; this period from 1951 to 1981 is known in India as the period of Population Explosion.
Causes in India
One of the reasons for the fast-rising population in India is its hot climate. Due to the hot climate, maturity comes at an early age, due to which they give birth to their children at an early age. This is one of the main reasons for the population explosion.
Child Marriage and Multi Marriage System
In India the tradition of child marriage and multi-marriage system is prevalent. Marriage of around 80% of girls in the country takes place at the young age of 15 to 20 years. Thus, the result of long married life comes in the form of excessive childbirth. The tradition of a multi-marriage system increases the rotation of childbirth. Apart from it, the increasing tendency of widow marriage, due to the social reforms is also increasing childbirth to some extent.
Our religious Gurus say that if a Hindu person does not have a son, then who will perform the religious ritual in its absence? Due to this, the person remains engaged in the continuous process of giving birth, one by one, in search of a male baby. In the same manner, in Muslims both male and female child is a boon (gift) sent by Allah, prevention of their birth by using any means of family planning is a sin. Due to these reasons, the population is continuously increasing.
Illiteracy and Unawareness
In India around 36% of males and 61% of females are illiterate. Neither do they have full knowledge of family planning nor do they know about the consequences of excessive childbirth. This is one of the reasons for the rising population and the situation of Population Explosion’ is emerged.
Due to poverty, the population is increased by the poor families of our country. People who live in slums, use their children as a tool, to earn money, hence they always try to increase the number of children in their families.
In India, the average age for marriage is very low, compared to other nations of the world. This is also a reason for the population explosion.
In India, the death rate from 1900 to 1910 was around 35 to 50 persons per thousand, now reduced to only 7 to 8 persons per thousand. This becomes possible in the country through good and hygienic food, pure drinking water, facilities of hospitals, good cleanness, medical facilities at affordable rates, and control over Malnutrition, Pneumonia, Cholera, Epidemic, etc. The child death rate has also reduced to 69 per thousand, comparatively around 218 per thousand between 1916 to 1920. Due to this also, the position of Population Explosion occurred.
Indifferent towards Family Planning
Illiterate persons and people living in rural areas are indifferent towards family planning. They feel fear even by the name of ‘Operation’. They are not interested even in the use of the simplest and cheapest means of family planning.
Lack of Social Security
Due to the lack of social security systems in India, every parent seeks shelter in times of crisis and for their old age, in childbirth. Whether this would be a son or daughter. In the fear of death of their child in childhood, they give birth to many children, so that any of them would be supported in their old age.
Arrival of Refugees
The population is very increased due to the continuous arrival of refugees in India. At the time of division of India and. Pakistan in 1947, more than 1 crore refugees came to India. In 1962 at the time of the attack on China, a huge number of Tibetan refugees came to India. Similarly, in 1971, more than 1 crore Bangladeshi refugees, came to India and even today this problem continued. Apart from this, the continuous arrival of Nepalis is also still continued. More than 5 lakhs Tamil refugees had come to India due to the Sri Lankan Tamil problem. All these are responsible for the population explosion.
Apart from the above, the following are other causes of population explosion
1- Social CCompulsion of Marriage
2- Lack of means of entertainment
3- Bhagyawati (fateful) view
4- Ambition of a big family
5- Betterment in economic position
6- Joint family system, etc.