CRITICISMS, LIMITATIONS OR EXCEPTIONS OF LAW OF EQUI-MARGINAL UTILITY
Following are the main reasons for the criticism of the Law of Equi-marginal utility by H. H. Gossen. Although, it is a basic law of economics and consumers knowingly or unknowingly are compelled, to follow this law. This law is applicable in every field of economic analysis. Continue reading →
We know that wants of every man are unlimited. Wants arise again and again but man has limited means (income) to fulfill his wants and means have , alternative uses. Thus, man always face problem of distribution of limited means of alternative uses, on his wants; so that, he may get maximum satisfaction (or utility). Law of Equi-Marginal Utility presents the solution of this problem. This law states that if a person, wishes to get maximum satisfaction from his income, he should spend his income on different items, in such a way that the utility of last unit of money spent on each commodity, should be equal or almost equal. This law of consumption was propounded by a French Economist, H. H. Gossen in 1854 and it is also known as the Second Law of Gossen. Continue reading →
Utility is a Psychological and Personal Concept. There is a deference of opinion, whether measurement of utility can be done or not. Followings are the two approaches are prevalent in this regard. Continue reading →
Marginal Utility is the utility which is derived from the consumption of an additional unit of a commodity. In other words, it is the addition to total utility, resulting from adding one unit to the consumption of a commodity.
Example : Ram consumes 6 ice creams at a time. In this case, 6 ice creams will be the marginal unit and utility derived by him from adding one unit to the consumption of a commodity.
Utility means the power that satisfies any want. It is such an internal quality; which is found in all commodities desired by a person. The quality (power or capability) of commodity which satisfies the human want; directly or indirectly is called Utility. Those commodities, which have wants satisfying power are called ‘Useful Commodities‘. Continue reading →
The word macro means big. Thus, in Macro Economics, either the whole economy is studied or those big units which are related to the economy as a whole.
In the words of Prof. Boulding
Macro Economics deals not with individual quantities as such but aggregates of these quantities, not with individual incomes but national income, not with individual output but with national output.
Thus, macro economics studies the various groups related to the whole economy, like, national savings, national income, national consumption, total employment, total production, etc.. Continue reading →
In the present times, the study of economics is done from two viewpoints namely Micro and Macro. From the first viewpoint, the economic problems of various units, like – individuals, families, firms etc. are studied individually, whereas; from the second viewpoint, the same units of persons, families, firms etc., are studied in a combined form. Micro Economics is concerned with a specific, particular or an individual whereas; Macro Economics is concerned with a group.
The word micro means very small portion. From this point of view, micro economics is the study of specific economics units of the whole economy. Under this, a commodity, a consumer, a firm or an industry is studied individually. Continue reading →