The Indian agricultural labor spends his days in dirt and mud. He produces food grains for us but remains hungry himself. He feeds our cows but never gets anything but water. He fills our stores with food grains, but begs his own ration for the whole year. He continuously chops woods and fills water for those who have become rich on behalf of his labor. His condition is heart wrenching and Piteous. Continue reading →
Agricultural labor is that person who works on another land, does not participate in farm management and its maintenance, and receives money or a portion of the harvest in consideration for his service. He neither has any rights regarding the land, nor does he have to bear any risk regarding the farm. Briefly by agricultural labor we mean’ such laborers who “earn their livelihood by working on agricultural farms.”
According to Second Agricultural Labor Investigation society
Agricultural labor refers to that person who receives more than half of the income from agriculture. The agricultural labor family refers to that family, whose more than half of the income from agriculture.
Agricultural productivity (Low Agricultural Productivity In India) is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. Continue reading →
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult.
Causes of Low Agricultural Productivity in India
Heavy Burden of the Population
In India, the burden of the population is too much on the agricultural land; due to which the agricultural activity cannot be properly controlled. In India about 70% people are dependent on agriculture. The increasing burden of the population on agricultural land, is one of the main reasons for low productivity.
Illiteracy, Superstition and Malnutrition
The agricultural productivity depends much on efficiency,, skill and sincerity of human resources. In India, unfortunately, the human resources are suffering from various deficiencies, the Indian farmer is illiterate and superstitious, their health is also frail. In the environment of superstition and conservatism the backwardness and low productivity of agriculture is natural.
Defective Social Organisation of Farmers
The Indian Social organisation of the farmers has been defective. The casts system and joint family system have not provided that encouragement and power by which they can increase their productivity. Due to cast-ism,proper cooperation of all in the agricultural activity is not possible. The family tensions and differences have very much responsible for minimizing the productivity of the farmer.
Traditional Methods of Farming
In India, fanning is done by traditional methods even today. By using good seeds, fertilizers and modem machinery per hectare production can be increased. But, here the same old seeds and traditional methods of farming are used. For irrigation, the farmer still depends on monsoon. Due to the shortage of,stores, the farmer either sells his harvest in the fields or is forced to sell it at low prices, in the market.
Size of Fields
The average size of the fields in India is between 2 acres to 5 acres, which is too less. The agricultural field is not only less but also dispersed. In some areas the size of the field is so small that they cant even be ploughed easily. Due to the small size of the field, the machines etc. cannot be used on it and the farmers have to expand more labor, time and energy. Even of these circumstances, the land disputes between the farmers make them incur the major part of their income on court cases.
Insufficient irrigation Facilities
One of the major reasons of low agriculture productivity in India, is that the farmers still depend on rain and very few farmers have their own irrigation means. Like before partition the total irrigated area was 24%, but after partition it has fallen to 19%, even though the government has started big and medium irrigation schemes, during the planning period from time to time. Thus, now in the ratio of total land, the irrigated area has increased to 36%. This shows that India requires artificial irrigation methods.
Uncertainty of Rain
From the point of view of both time and result, rain is uncertain. Due to this reason Indian agriculture is called a gamble of rains. Scanty rainfall causes droughts, and heavy rains destroy the crops by floods.
Faulty and Tenancy System
Thogh the “Zamidari System” has ended in India and the Land Development Act has been implemented yet still most of the farmers have not been provided land. Since, they don’t have their own land, they do not work sincerely. Thus, productivity is low.
Lack of Good Quality manure
The number of animals in India is so much that each year 165 crore tons of manure can be produced from their urine and dung. Other wastes and useless articles can produce 8.6 mega tons of manure. But, the valuable manure from cow-dung is dried and burned in case of shortage of wood. Thus, due to lack of good manure productivity decreases.
Lack of Finance
The claims of loans have discouraged the Indian farmer. He lacks funds to buy good quality manure, seeds and machines. He fulfills his financial requirement by taking loans from the moneylender. The moneylender exploits him, taking advantage of his condition. Thus, the farmer unable to invest in agriculture. As a result production falls.
Crop Diseases and Animals
The crops get various diseases like termite, redcoat etc. which destroys the crop. Secondly, the various wild animals like Pigs, Neel-Gaye (wild-cows), etc. damage the standing crop. Thus, production falls.
One of the reasons of the backwardness of the Indian farmer is defective marketing system. Due to this defective marketing, the Indian farmer is unable to get a fair price for his produce, and as a result he is discouraged from performing his production activity, skillfully. Due to the defective marketing system,the farmers do not earn sufficient income and are unable to succeed in the agricultural activity.
Decline in Fertility
Decline in fertility is also responsible for lower productivity in India. Continuous agricultural activity on land has activated the Law of Diminishing Returns on it. No effective resolutions have been made to restrict continuity of this law.
After independence, many development programs and plans were started in India, like Adult Education Plan, Family Planning and Health Program and programs for the development of rural and, small industries. etc. But, due to the diversity of these plans and the differences in their implementation, areas and objects, there was a lack of mutual integrity and coordination due to which many difficulties and administrative problems arose. Though, the various programs had their own achievements yet due to lack of integrity and coordination the need for a wide and comprehensive rural development program was felt. Continue reading →