An Introduction to Green Revolution
The Green Revolution was started in India by then Prime Minister Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, who gave the slogan of “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan”, according to which, to make the country powerful from a security point of, view, is the responsibility of the soldiers while making it self-sufficient in the field of food grains, is the responsibility of the farmers.
American agronomist, “Father of the Green Revolution” and Nobel laureate, Dr. Norman Borlaug (left) advised a farmer on wheat development programs during his visit to Bombay on March 14, 1971.
Shortcomings, Failure, and Criticism of the Green Revolution in India
Some critics are of the view that the Green Revolution has not been remarkably successful in India. It has benefited only some limited farmers. Due to the preference given to some areas, regional inequalities have arisen. The use of excessive fertilizers has made the land useless. Criticism of the Green Revolution is as follows:
Increase in Unemployment
In rural areas due to extensive agricultural programs, mechanization has been rapid, which has increased unemployment. It is inappropriate for countries like India, where unemployment is already a problem. In this way, unemployment is increasing in rural areas.
More Dependence on Fertilizers
In this agricultural policy, the use of fertilizers is given more importance than irrigation, which is not appropriate because, in the absence of irrigation, fertilizers have no use. Due to this reason, the fertility of land has decreased in some areas.
The benefit of the Green Revolution has been received by the prosper farmers. The poor farmers have not benefited from this policy. It has enhanced economic inequalities.
Under the Green Revolution movement, the implementation of agricultural resources was aimed only at naturally favorable areas, due to which some areas developed, and some places were not given any attention. This increased regional difficulties. The prosperous areas became more prosperous and the backward became more backward.
Benefited only a Few Crops
The green revolution has been successful only on a few crops, especially wheat, rice, maize, jwar, and baajra. No work has been done for other crops. Specially relating to crops like cotton or sugarcane etc.
Difficulty in Storage
The progress of agriculture has given rise to an additional problem of storage. At present, the storage capacity of our country is 2.5 crore tons, which is not sufficient for production.
Lack of Experience
Due to the unavailability of scientifically developed seeds in India, farmers have been lacking experience with them. What effect these modem resources would have on Indian conditions, is not known certainly. Working without experience is like walking without knowing the path, where the possibility of going in the wrong direction is more.
Difficulties in the Use of Modern Techniques
Most of the Indian farmers have small lands, hence they have problems using the modern equipment designed for big lands. In this way, these farmers have remained acquitted of the benefits of the green revolution.
Suggestions for Improvement
- The small farmers should be provided credit facilities at lower interest rates than the big farmers.
- Modern techniques should be made profitable for small farmers.
- The land development programs should be made effective and activated on a large scale.
- The marketing system of agriculture should be improved.
- To solve the problem of unemployment due to the increased use of instruments and machines the small and cottage industries should be rapidly developed.
- The labor-intensive techniques should be given preference.
- An improved variety of seeds should be developed.
- Crop insurance should be started on a large scale for farmers.
- The education, research, and expansion services should be developed in villages
- Irrigation facilities should be expanded.
- Landless laborers and farmers should be united.
- Programs for plant protection should be expanded.