Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult.
Causes of Low Agricultural Productivity in India
Heavy Burden of the Population
In India, the burden of the population is too much on the agricultural land; due to which the agricultural activity cannot be properly controlled. In India, about 70% of people are dependent on agriculture. The increasing burden of the population on agricultural land is one of the main reasons for low productivity.
Illiteracy, Superstition, and Malnutrition
The agricultural productivity depends much on the efficiency, skill, and sincerity of human resources. In India, unfortunately, the human resources are suffering from various deficiencies, the Indian farmer is illiterate and superstitious, their health is also frail. In the environment of superstition and conservatism, the backwardness and low productivity of agriculture is natural.
Defective Social Organisation of Farmers
The Indian Social organization of the farmers has been defective. The casts system and joint family system have not provided that encouragement and power by which they can increase their productivity. Due to cast-ism, proper cooperation of all in the agricultural activity is not possible. The family tensions and differences have very much responsible for minimizing the productivity of the farmer.
Traditional Methods of Farming
In India, fanning is done by traditional methods even today. By using good seeds, fertilizers and modem machinery per hectare production can be increased. But, here the same old seeds and traditional methods of farming are used. For irrigation, the farmer still depends on the monsoon. Due to the shortage of, stores, the farmer either sells his harvest in the fields or is forced to sell it at low prices, in the market.
Size of Fields
The average size of the fields in India is between 2 acres to 5 acres, which is too less. The agricultural field is not only less but also dispersed. In some areas, the size of the field is so small that they can’t even be plowed easily. Due to the small size of the field, the machines, etc. cannot be used on it and the farmers have to expand more labor, time, and energy. Even of these circumstances, the land disputes between the farmers make them incur the major part of their income on court cases.
Insufficient irrigation Facilities
One of the major reasons for low agriculture productivity in India is that the farmers still depend on rain and very few farmers have their own irrigation means. Like before partition the total irrigated area was 24%, but after partition, it has fallen to 19%, even though the government has started big and medium irrigation schemes, during the planning period from time to time. Thus, now in the ratio of total land, the irrigated area has increased to 36%. This shows that India requires artificial irrigation methods.
Uncertainty of Rain
From the point of view of both time and result, rain is uncertain. Due to this reason, Indian agriculture is called a gamble of rains. Scanty rainfall causes droughts, and heavy rains destroy the crops by floods.
Faulty and Tenancy System
Though the “Zamindari System” has ended in India and the Land Development Act has been implemented yet still most of the farmers have not been provided land. Since they don’t have their own land, they do not work sincerely. Thus, productivity is low.
Lack of Good Quality manure
The number of animals in India is so much that each year 165 crore tons of manure can be produced from their urine and dung. Other wastes and useless articles can produce 8.6 megatons of manure. But, the valuable manure from cow dung is dried and burned in case of a shortage of wood. Thus, due to a lack of good manure productivity decreases.
Lack of Finance
The claims of loans have discouraged the Indian farmer. He lacks funds to buy good quality manure, seeds, and machines. He fulfills his financial requirement by taking loans from the moneylender. The moneylender exploits him, taking advantage of his condition. Thus, the farmer unable to invest in agriculture. As a result, production falls.
Crop Diseases and Animals
The crops get various diseases like termite, redcoat, etc. which destroys the crop. Secondly, the various wild animals like Pigs, Neel-Gaye (wild-cows), etc. damage the standing crop. Thus, production falls.
One of the reasons for the backwardness of the Indian farmer is the defective marketing system. Due to this defective marketing, the Indian farmer is unable to get a fair price for his produce, and as a result, he is discouraged from performing his production activity, skillfully. Due to the defective marketing system, the farmers do not earn sufficient income and are unable to succeed in the agricultural activity.
Decline in Fertility
The decline in fertility is also responsible for lower productivity in India. Continuous agricultural activity on land has activated the Law of Diminishing Returns on it. No effective resolutions have been made to restrict the continuity of this law.