December 2016

Contemporary Auditing – Types Of Audit

  • by sadiq

Auditing

An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents, and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern. It also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law.

Social Audit

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Routine Checking – Merits and Demerits

We have already discussed about purpose and objectives of Routine Checking. In this article, we will go through some merits and demerits of Routine Checking.

Purpose of Routine Checking

  1. Making totals and sub-totals of primary books of accounts, carrying them forward to the next page, and calculating the balances and their checking.
  2. Checking of the ledger postings derived from the primary books and journal, and to see whether they are properly done or not.
  3. To see the totals of debits and-credits of different accounts and their balances.
  4. To check whether balances of various accounts are properly taken to the Trial Balance, or not.

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Routine Checking – Purpose and Objectives

Routine Checking

Whether a business is big or small, the record of its daily transactions is kept in the books of accounts. The daily checking of these books of accounts under audit is called Routine Checking. Usually, this work is done by the junior staff of the auditor.

Merits and Demerits of Routine Checking are also discussed in later articles.

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Internal Check in an Organization

Meaning Of Internal Check

The internal check system is a part of the internal control system of the business. This is also called Internal Block. Each trader wants that he should be able to control the internal activities of his business, in such a manner that he can get maximum profits and the. chances of mistakes, fraud, etc., are could be minimum. The system of internal check is one such arrangement, in which the activities of employees are divided in such a manner that the work of one employee is independently checked by the other employee. Unless all employees of the organization become united, the chances of fraud, etc. is not there.

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Social Audit

Social Audit

The evaluation of the social responsibilities of an industry, company, or firm is defined as Social Audit. In practice, it can be called the appraisal of the activities of the social responsibilities of an organization. Every industry runs in the society, for the society, thus the aim of any industry is not only to earn maximum profits, but it has some responsibilities towards the society in which it exists. Through this type of audit, the auditor examines as to what extent the industry is carrying out its responsibilities.

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Verification Parameters of Contemporary Auditing

Verification Of Assets

For verification of any assets the auditor has to mainly check some general points, which are almost similar for all kinds of assets, still according to the name of the asset, the auditor verifies them in the following manner

The main parameters to verify the value of an asset are

  • Debtors
  • Goodwill
  • Trade Mark
  • Land and Buildings

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Verification Of Assets in Contemporary Auditing

  • by sadiq

Meaning Of Verification

It is the duty of the auditor that he specifically writes in his report whether the financial position of the organization represented in the Balance Sheet is proper or not. He must make sure that all the assets shown in the Balance Sheet are actually present with the organization or not, the organization has valued them properly or not, they are free from all kinds of mortgages, etc. or not. Similarly, he has ‘to make sure about all liabilities also. In this way, the auditor evaluates the assets and liabilities of the organization and verifies them, and this work of the auditor is called Verification.

Read about Verification Parameters

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Criticism of Green Revolution in India

  • by sadiq

An Introduction to Green Revolution

American agronomist, Dr Norman Borlaug

The Green Revolution was started in India by then Prime Minister Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, who gave the slogan of “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan”, according to which, to make the country powerful from a security point of, view, is the responsibility of the soldiers while making it self sufficient in the field of food grains, is the responsibility of the farmers.
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The Green Revolution In India and Agricultural Productivity

  • by sadiq

An Introduction To Green Revolution In India

The Green Revolution was started in India by then Prime Minister Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, who gave the slogan of “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan”, according to which, to make the country powerful from a security point of view, is the responsibility of the soldiers while making it self sufficient in the field of food grains, is the responsibility of the farmers.
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Keynesian Theory of Deficiency, Demand and Employment

Introduction to Keynesian Theory of Employment

John Maynard Keynes

Keynesian Theory was given by Keynes when in his volume “General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” had not only criticized the Classical Theory of Employment but had also analyzed those factors that affect the employment and production level of an economy. Most of the modern economists agree with the concept of Keynes. The Keynesian Theory of Employment is a product of the world-wide depression of 1931-36. Due to this depression, unemployment spread in all independent capitalist economies. Keynes analyzed that situation of unemployment and tried to find the reason and solution to that problem.Read More »Keynesian Theory of Deficiency, Demand and Employment